Linux

Linux

Linux Kernel Allows 0.0.0.0/8 as a Valid Address Range

best linux distros for programmers in 2019

The Linux kernel team announced a patch to allow 0.0.0.0/8 as a valid address range. The primary goal is to use this 0/8 as a global unicast as this address is still unused except the 0.0.0.0. The patch will allow 16m new IPv4 addresses to appear within a box or on the wire.

According to a blog post, written by Dave Taht, director of the Make-Wifi-Fast and committed by David Stephen Miller, an American software developer mentions that the use of 0.0.0.0/8 has been prohibited since the beginning due to two main issues.

Why the use of 0.0.0.0/8 was prohibited until now?

  1. An interoperability problem with BSD 4.2 in 1984, which was later fixed in BSD 4.3 in 1986. Since then, BSD 4.2 has been retired.
  2. The addresses of the form 0.x.y.z were originally defined as a source address in an ICMP datagram only. They indicate “node number x.y.z on this IPv4 network.” Nodes help them know their address on their local network but knowing their network prefix wasn’t possible, know more here.

The use of 0.x.y.z was later revoked in RFC1122. The reason was — the original ICMP-based mechanism for learning the network prefix wasn’t working on many networks such as Ethernet. This is due to the longer addresses that couldn’t fit into the 24 node number bits.

Modern networks use reverse ARP, BOOTP or DHCP to find their 32-bit address and CIDR netmask. 0.x.y.z has had a total of 16,777,215 addresses left unused and reserved for future use in 0.0.0.0/8 space.

If you are unaware, whole the discussion of allowing these IP Addresses was started during early this year at NetDevConf 2019, the technical conference on Linux Networking.

The conference was held from March 20th to 22nd, 2019 in Prague, Czech Republic. One of the sessions, “Potential IPv4 Unicast Expansions”, was conducted by Dave Taht, along with John Gilmore, and Paul Wouters.

Also Read: Linux 5.1 Released with Memory and Security Improvements

Patch code for 0.0.0.0/8 for Linux:

Linux code for patch

As the majority of Internet client nodes don’t have IPv6 addresses yet, service sites still need IPv4 addresses for everything. These addresses now cost around USD 15 – 20 apiece (times the size of your network) and the price keeps rising.

Lastly, users have a mixed reaction to this announcement. They assume these addresses would be unassigned forever.

A user explained the difference between the address ranges in a post, “0.0.0.0/8 – Addresses in this block refer to source hosts on ‘this’ network. Address 0.0.0.0/32 may be used as a source address for this host on this network; other addresses within 0.0.0.0/8 may be used to refer to specified hosts on this network.”

A few people also mentioned that for most business, IPv6 is still an unnecessary headache.

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Linux

A Quick Look at Highly Secured OpenBSD Operating System

open BSD

Operating system plays a very important role in the overall security of your system. Though most of the people prefer Linux for obvious reasons, their search for the most secure operating system remains as it is. Today, I will introduce you to a highly secured OpenBSD OS and some of its awesome features. So, let’s get started..!!

According to the Open Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) project’s homepage, “the OS has only two remote holes in the default install, in a heck of a long time!” Some security professionals also claim that Unix-like operating system evolved from AT&T Unix through the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), maybe the most secure OS of its type.

OpenBSD Operating System

“OpenBSD was and is written from the ground up, with a security-first mindset and goal — making security the first priority,” said Joseph Wolff, founder, and CTO of eRacks Systems, which has been providing OpenBSD firewalls, laptops, the system installs for many years.

OpenBSD integrates security technology as required for building firewalls and private network services. The core OS and core packages are also security-audited as well. “OpenBSD features a minimal attack surface, including minimal installed packages in the default installation and a few open ports as possible,” Wolff added.

Also Read: 10 Best Operating Systems for Hackers and Pentesters

Other Advantages of OpenBSD

  • Active development to integrate emerging technologies
  • It supports a variety of hardware platforms
  • Unix-like OS available in source and binary forms
  • Minimal need for customization
  • Free of Cost

Also, OpenBSD is distributed with several third-party products, including:

  • GCC, the GNU compiler collection
  • X.org, open-source implementation of the X Window System
  • gdb, the GNU project debugger
  • NSD DNS name server and Unbound caching DNS resolver
  • Binutils binary tools collection
  • LLVM/Clang, a language front end and tooling infrastructure for the C language family
  • Ncurses library of free software emulation curses in System V Release 4.0
    Perl programming language

According to the OpenBSD project community, if you have already used Unix, OpenBSD will feel familiar to you.

Also Read: Top 5 Open Source Operating Systems for IoT devices

OpenBSD Tools

OpenBSD Project is responsible for several popular tools. “The most well-known is OpenSSH — arguably the backbone of the Internet — is written and maintained by the OpenBSD team,” Wolff says. Apart from this, the other tools available for Linux, Unix, and Windows include:

OpenNTPD: A free Network Time Protocol that syncs the local clock with the remote NTP. It can act as an NTP server itself.
LibreSSL: A TLS version that helps modernize the code base and improve security.
OpenBGPD: A free Border Gateway Protocol implementation that allows ordinary machines to be used as a router.
OpenSMTPD: A free server-side SMTP implementation that allows machines to exchange emails.

The OpenBSD has an active community. You will get access to resources, such as OpenBSD Journal. You can also join mailing lists including developer lists where you can connect with users. If you are interested, you can try OpenBSD 6.5 for free from here.

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LinuxTech News

Linux 5.1 Released with Memory and Security Improvements

linux for computer science students

Linus Torvalds has finally released the stable version of Linux Kernal 5.1 after almost 13,000 commits. Though the codename ‘Shy Crocodile’ remained with the latest version, it brings some major improvements and a lot of new features.

According to Phoronix, Linux 5.1 contains 17.8 million lines of code and 3.3 million lines of comments. ”On the whole, 5.1 looks very normal with just over 13k commits (plus another 1k+ if you count merges), which is pretty much our normal size these days,“ said Linus Torvalds.

Linux 5.1 arrived a bit late as compared to other releases due to some last-minute pull requests. “The requests weren’t big enough to justify delaying things over, and hopefully, the merge window timing won’t be all that painful either,” wrote Linus.

Read: Chrome OS Now Brings VPN Support to the Linux Applications

Linux Kernel 5.1: New Features

Linux 5.1 kernel

The new Linux Kernel brings support for Intel 22260 Wi-Fi, mainline kernel support for the Raspberry Pi 3 Model A+support, support for Intel Fastboot and ability to use persistent memory as system RAM.

Moving to some major changes, the biggest highlight of Linux 5.1 is the new high-performance I/O interface. The new io_uring interface will bring fast and scalable asynchronous I/O to Linux. it also adds a userspace library that allows apps to set up an io_uring instance without need of the ins and outs of the io_uring.

The latest update brings support for the usage of persistent memory as RAM. Though it already been made clear that this could have some negative effects on performance, at least Linux is now giving an option to use NVDIMMs as additional RAM.

Also Read: Project Elisa Launched For Linux in Safety-Critical Systems

The new release comes with an improved fanotify interface that lets you monitor Linux file system for changes and bring a very scalable way to keep track of changes in the form of “superblock root watch” feature.

Linux 5.1 also brings better support for Raven Ridge hardware. With Linux 5.1 users can also set their own Zstd compression level on Btrfs FS.

Linux Kernel 5.1: Security

Lastly taking about security, the Linux 5.1 comes with a new SafeSetID Linux Security Module (LSM). This will the entire process of switching user to root and running system-level commands a lot safer. We all know that when a command is executed as a root user, it can potentially do anything the root user can do, and that’s a bit dangerous.

If you’re interested in diving deeper and exploring the new features of Linux Kernel 5.1, you can visit kernel.org for more.

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LinuxTech News

Fedora 30 Released with GNOME 3.32 and Other Improvements

Why You Should Use Fedora Linux

Fedora is one of the most popular Linux distros out there. It is backed by Red Hat Linux and known for its bleeding edge software. It has one of the largest Linux communities in the world and heavily focuses on open-source. Almost all the software (except the binary blobs on its kernel) is available in its official repositories.

There are a lot of Linux enthusiasts who consider Fedora as an innovative Linux distro. It doesn’t hesitate to test new features and make them available for all other distros. With that being said, the Fedora team has recently released the latest version Fedora 30 with GNOME 3.32 and many other improvements. So, let’s have a look at the new features and changes one by one.

Read: Top 5 Reasons Why You Should Use Fedora Linux

What’s New in Fedora 30?

Fedora 30

One of the major changes in Fedora 30 is the introduction of all new GNOME 3.32 desktop environment. If we look at its past releases, the GNOME desktop has gone through many changes to reduce its memory consumption. But the new GNOME 3.32 is far more improved and makes everything buttery smooth and fluid. These enhancements are brought by doing modifications directly in the core GNOME libraries.

The desktop environment now comes with a refreshed visual style that makes everything look more premium. The app icons, user icons, switches, buttons, etc are also revamped.

Coming to packages, Fedora 30 includes the latest GCC 9, PHP 7.3, Ruby 2.6, Bash 5.0 and other apps. If you don’t like the default GNOME desktop, this Linux distro even allows you to install other desktop environments.

Fedora 30 is powered by the latest Linux 5.0, which brings more performance and better hardware support. With is version, the cloud and server releases are being combined into the Fedora Server Edition.

The new Fedora also comes with some new features like support for Btrfs swap file, AMDGPU FreeSync, energy-aware scheduling, etc. The team is bringing in Fedora CoreOS to replace Fedora Atomic Host as our container-focused deliverable in the Fedora 30 timeframe. They also have plans to target other variants as well, including Fedora Spins and Labs.

Also Read: 5 Best Linux Distributions for Beginners (Windows and Mac Users)

How to Download and Upgrade to Fedora 30?

If you want to upgrade your existing Fedora 29 to latest Fedora 30, just run to the following command in terminal one by one.

sudo dnf upgrade --refresh
sudo dnf install dnf-plugin-system-upgrade
sudo dnf install dnf-plugin-system-upgrade
sudo dnf system-upgrade reboot

Otherwise, you can even perform a full installation of the new Fedora 30 by downloading the ISO file from here. And lastly, don’t forget to share your Fedora 30 experience in the comments below.

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LinuxTech News

Chrome OS Now Brings VPN Support to the Linux Applications

Best VPN to choose

The Linux-based operating system ChromeOS is already quite popular for intensive web browsing. As you might know, Networking has always been a major concern when it comes to integrating Android apps with Chrome OS. But the Google is now rolling out ChromeOS 75.0.3770.10 with VPN support and many other fixes.

Google Adds VPN Support to Linux Applications

The search giant is currently pushing the update on the Developer channel. The crostini containers will now route connections through a VPN if you kept it active on your Chromebook. As per the responses received in the community, the updates seem to be very smooth. The developers had no issue in launching any Android or Linux application. Let’s have a look at some of its features.

Read: Why Linux is the best OS for Computer Science students?

ChromeOS New Features & Bug Fixes

Chrome OS VPN Support Linux Applications

Crostini Installer Disk Space Check

The Crostini installer now comes with disk space check that Google has added just to verify the required disk space available before installing the Termina VM and Crostini container. Earlier, the installation appeared that everything is fine but eventually failed.

Crostini Metrics

Google has also improved their way of understanding a particular problem by collection basic metrics such as Disk Space, Download Times and Installation Errors during the installation of Crostini.

VPN Support in Crostini

If you have a VPN running on your Chromebook, your Linux container will now route traffic over a VPN including both VPNs setup in the ChromeOS VPN settings and Android VPNs. This feature doesn’t require you to enable any flag, it works by default.

New Folders in File Manager

In the latest version, you’ll see a new folder for Bug Reports and installed Android apps on the left panel of File Manager. Initially, if you click on ‘Bug Reports’, the folder will be empty and on clicking on any Android app, it will show its storage area.

Architecture Check During Crostini Import

Though it was somehow possible to import a backup generated on an X86_64 Chromebook to Arm Chromebook. But there were a lot of cases where it created a lot of problem including a few cases where the container become unusable. But with the new version, Google has added an architecture check before importing a backup.

Also Read: Top 5 Best Linux Distros Programmers And Developers

Google Assistant Bug Fixed

Google has fixed the bug released with ChromeOS 75.0.3759.4 that broke the Google Assistant button for Pixelbook and Pixelslate Owners.

I know there are a lot of things yet to be confirmed but this step has brought ChromeOS one step closer to fully functional Linux applications. Now, we just have to wait for graphics enhancement and finished sound.

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Linux

Parrot 4.6 Linux Distro Released With Some Major Improvements

Parrot Linux-compressed

Whenever we look for operating systems for hacking and security analysis purposes, Kali Linux’s popularity usually fades everything away. But there are a few contenders like Parrot Linux and BlackArch that holds a special place among them. Though some Windows-based options like Commando VM are also there, most of the security researchers prefer to go with the Linux-based distros.

Parrot 4.6 Linux Distro Released

The Parrot Linux team recently released the new Parrot Linux 4.6 with some major improvements such as KDE Desktop, OpenNIC support, etc. The new version is released after three months of a continuous heavy development cycle. It’s a big achievement for the team as they have now shifted to their own infrastructure using the same.

If you are unaware, the Parrot Linux comes in different versions with different goals. While the Home/Workstation version offers a lightweight environment for normal uses and privacy, the Security version offers a full-fledged system for pen-testing, forensics and reverse engineering. If you are someone who is not involved in any security work and just want the feel of Parrot, go with the Home/Workstation version.

Read: Project Elisa Launched For Linux in Safety-Critical Systems

What’s New in Parrot Linux 4.6?

Parrot 4.6 Linux

The Parrot 4.6 Linux distro has added a new ISO image based on the KDE Plasma desktop. Before this change, Parrot distro shipped with the default MATE desktop. The new desktop flavor is available with both Home and Security versions.

Talking about the design, a new boot-splash animation and desktop background looks amazing. While the themes and icon remain the same, the desktop-based and some wallpapers have been upgraded to match the new look.

The APT’s enforcement of HTTPS in the new Parrot Linux is also one of the other major changes. The distro is now configured to redirect to HTTPS mirrors whenever possible. In case the HTTPS mirrors aren’t available, the signatures will be still verified.

In order to provide freedom to users and allows domain resolution of some special top-level domains, Anonsurf now comes with an option to change default DNS servers to OpenNIC DNS resolvers.

The Nvidia drivers are also updated to the new 410 version to provide better performance. The Parrot 4.6 comes with Linux 4.19 Kernel that may not be the latest 5.0 but comes with long-term support.

The team is constantly working to rebuild the sandbox. “Sandboxed applications in Parrot OS are now more stable and reliable than before, and we are pushing forward with plans to not only add more profiles but utilize firejail’s capabilities to their fullest,” said Parrot Linux team.

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Linux

Top 5 Reasons Why You Should Use Fedora Linux

Why You Should Use Fedora Linux

Fedora is one of the most popular Linux distros out there. It is backed by Red Hat Linux and comes with tonnes of useful features. I have seen people mostly talk about Ubuntu for its simplicity and Kali Linux for its pen testing and hacking capabilities. But when it comes to Fedora, they usually say – It’s not easy to use.

Fedora has one of the largest Linux communities in the world. It’s known for its bleeding edge software and heavily focuses on open source. All the software, except the binary blobs on its kernel, are available in its official repositories. Fedora uses GNOME by default, comes with fairly intuitive Default Package Manager (DNF) and has Large official repositories.

Today, I will share the top five reasons for using Fedora covering some of its major advantages. So, without any further ado, let’s get started..!!

Read: 5 Best Linux Distros Programmers And Developers

Why You Should Use Fedora Linux?

1. Frequent Updates

Fedora Linux 28

 

One of the topmost reason for using Fedora is frequent updates. It is called bleeding edge Linux distribution. It always has the latest features, software, updated driver, libraries, stable kernel, etc. You will receive operating system updates every six months. If you also crave for the newest software and updates, I don’t there’s any better other option than Fedora.

2. Variety of Spins

fedora spin

Another major advantage with Fedora is the availability of a variety of Fedora spins. If you don’t know, Fedora comes with the GNOME desktop environment by default, but it also allows you to use other environments such as KDE Plasma Desktop, XFCE4, LXQT, MATE, LXDE, Cinnamon, etc.

You just have to know your requirements and choose one as per desktop environments and programs they are bundled with. There’s no need to customize the operating system after installation. Fedora teams already do the hard work for making different spins of this OS.

3. Top-Most Security

fedora security

Though every Linux distribution is secure than other operating systems, Fedora has gone further to embed the Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) module.

SELinux is a mechanism for supporting access control security policies, including mandatory access controls (MAC). It’s a set of kernel modifications and user-space tools come by default with Fedora. SELinux prevents unauthorize access and helps in maintaining the security shield around your Fedora backed system.

4. A True Open Source Linux Distro

fedora linux open source

If you are someone who is highly involved with the open source community, Fedora is definitely for you. All the default apps of Fedora are open-source and is quite stagnant that it will not include proprietary programs.

Though Fedora allows you to install any software you want, Its inclination towards open source community is commendable. I don’t consider it a disadvantage but you have to download any proprietary software from third-party resources. Overall, Fedora is free from any kind of proprietary software, multimedia codecs, drivers and this is one of the strongest reasons why you should use Fedora.

5. Large Community

fedora community

I understand the frustration when people stuck with a particular problem for days because there’s no one to help. But believe me, you will never face this situation with Fedora.

After Ubuntu, Fedora has one of the biggest communities in the world. It has an official forum where fellow Fedora users are ready to help you in any matter or issue you are facing. Apart from this, there’s pretty big Reddit community and the Fedora IRC channel. In short, Fedora has enough resources to provide full support to its users.

Recommended: Project Elisa Launched For Linux in Safety-Critical Systems

Final Words

These are some of the major reasons why you should use Fedora. It might not be popular as Ubuntu or comes with advanced tools by default as Kali Linux or user-friendly as Linux Mint, but it has a solid base when it comes to latest features and security. Another fact is, anyone, can build a Linux distribution but you should not use one run by a single or few people. Fedora is backed by RedHat, one of the most reputable names in Linux industry and hence you will have peace of mind.

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LinuxTech News

Project Elisa Launched For Linux in Safety-Critical Systems

Linux 5.1 kernel

Computers have evolved very much. They are now being used to perform a long and huge list of operations, but there are cases where consequences could be devastating if something goes wrong.

Project Elisa For Safety-Critical Systems

Last week, Linux Foundation announced a new project called Elisa to assure the usability, reliability, and performance of Linux based systems and applications when running in safety-critical systems. They basically want to make sure that Linux is ready to be used in safety-critical systems whose failure could result in environmental damage, property damage, physical injury or loss of life.

Linux Project Elisa

Image Source: Elisa.tech

The Project “Enabling Linux in Safety Applications” or Elisa aims to create a shared set of tools and processes that can be used in building error-free Linux based systems. This includes robotic devices, medical devices, smart machines in factories that are already doing risky jobs as per the direction given by simple computers.

Read: Top 5 Best Linux Distros Programmers

Though the driver-less passenger cars are still a few years away, some supermarket chains like Kroger are using low-speed driverless vans for home delivery in some areas. So, it’s important to make the entire system failure-proof for both users and manufacturers.

According to Kate Stewart, senior director of the strategic program at Linux Foundation, “All major industries, including energy, medical and automotive, want to use Linux for safety-critical applications because it can enable them to bring products to market faster and reduce the risk of critical design errors.”

Talking about the challenges, as of now, we lack clear documentation and tools that are required to confirm that a Linux-based system meets the necessary safety guidelines and requirements for certification.

The Project Elisa will define and maintain a standard set of processes and tool that can be integrated into critical-safety systems looking for a safety certificate. This project will work with the certification authorities and other bodies to demonstrate how Linux can be used in these systems.

Also Read: Kali Linux 2019.1 Released With Metasploit 5.0 and Automation APIs

“Earlier, the Linux community was not so strong to build a widely discussed and accepted methodology, but with Elisa and support of broader Linux Foundation community, we will be able to leverage the infrastructure and make the initiative successful,” Stewart said.

To start, the project plans to build off the work of the SIL2LinuxMP project, which is developing a certification program for real-time operating systems. The Heinz Egger, CEO of Linutronix said: We are happy to see that the SIL2Linux work will continue and advance with the launch of Elisa and provide a clear focus for the use of Linux in safety-critical applications. Linux is already known for its robustness and security. Elisa will help companies to install Linux in the industrial world deeper than ever.

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Security

Ubuntu 16.04.6 Released To Fix a Serious APT Vulnerability

ubuntu linux

The Linux-based OS Ubuntu is known for its simplicity and security. It’s free, highly customizable and comes in lots of flavors. Yesterday, Ubuntu released an unscheduled update of its 16.04 LTS version to fix a major vulnerability.

The update was developed for all its desktop and server products. According to researcher Max Justicz, the bug in the OS allowed attackers to play with the Advanced Packaging Tool (APT) and install infected packages. He also said that the APT was unable to handle certain parameters during redirects.

The Bug Made Ubuntu Vulnerable to MITM

man in the middle

The flaw was so severe in its nature that if a Man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack happened, attackers could install modified packages to breach the security of OS. This may result in packages behaving unexpectedly or performing some actions which they are not supposed to do.

The Ubuntu 16.04.6 version is actually a patch for this major flaw. The updated doesn’t only secure the operating system from this vulnerability but also ensure that new installs are no longer prone to the bug. After all, the popular OS Ubuntu can’t let their users compromise their security at any cost.

Lukasz Zemczak of Ubuntu said in its announcement, “Unlike previous point releases, 16.04.6 is a security-targeted release for the purpose of providing updated installation media which protects new installations from the recently discovered APT vulnerability (USN-3863-1).”

Also Read: What skills are required to become an Ethical Hacker?

How to be Safe?

You are also advised to update the operating system with the latest patched version. This version also includes some other major security updates for possible flaws. The Ubuntu 16.04.6 has been released with a strong focus on maintaining stability and compatibility both.

Also, remember the Ubuntu 16.04 is not the only version affected by this critical bug. Other versions like 18.10, 18.04 and 14.04 LTS are also on the list and could be attacked via this APT vulnerability.

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Linux

Why Linux is the best OS for Computer Science students?

linux for computer science students

Let’s assume you are planning to major in computer science or you are already into it. Which one should be your primary OS between Windows and Linux? Some people will advocate for Windows while others for Linux. Instead of throwing you into another round of unending debate, I am going to outline solid reasons why Linux should be the primary OS in Computer Science.

1. Linux is an Open Source OS

As a computer science student, you are a technical person. You are not just interested in what is happening at the front-end of a software. You would like to know what is happening at the backend. As an open source OS, Linux gives users the power to see how it is operating. This is because it is an open source OS.

This is a unique feature that you won’t find in the Windows operating system. The good news is this is not the only benefit that comes with the open source nature of Linux operating system.

Read: What Is Open Source? Why Open Source Software Are Popular?

2. Linux is more secure

If you are keen on getting statistics about cyber attacks, you must have noticed the difference between Linux and Windows operating systems in terms of security. Windows are vulnerable to cyber attacks. This always happens even when users have installed powerful Antivirus programs.

On the other hand, you will rarely hear of cases of hacking on the Linux operating system. The OS just seems to be more secure than its rival. Of course, there are several factors that make Linux be more secure than Windows. Some of them include repositories and package management. Being an open source OS also means that the community is always updating the security system of the OS.

Read: 5 Free Open-Source AntiVirus Software

If you don’t want to spend lots of money on premium Antivirus software, Linux should be your primary OS. You will also not have to worry about dealing with security risks.

3. Linux is free

This is another big benefit of the open source nature of Linux OS. You can get it without paying a dime. All you need is to get into the Linux community and install the Linux OS into your computer. You won’t be required to buy verification codes or remit any other form of payment.

The case is different when it comes to Windows OS. You have to pay some amount of money when purchasing the OS. As if that is not enough, you will be required to pay for Antivirus software. All these costs can be avoided by making Linux your primary operating system. You will then spend that money to buy some meaningful programming courses online

4. Linux is programmer-friendly

Linux s OS provides full support for almost all programming languages. Although Windows OS does the same, Linux is a more programmer-friendly OS. Whether you want to program using C, C++, Java, Perl or any other programming language, you will have an easier time in Linux than in Windows.

So, why is Linux a preferred OS for programmers? One of the reasons is the Linux terminal is more powerful than the Window’s command line. It has many libraries which are specifically developed for programming. Also, the terminal has a package manager which simplifies the tasks for programmers.

Also, Read: 5 Most Useful Linux tools for Programmers

Another common reason why programmers prefer Linux to Windows is the bash scripting feature. Also, Linux OS provides the native support for SSH which is essential when it comes to programming servers.

As a computer science, programming will be part and parcel of your life. If you want to make things easier and smoother, you should then make Linux your main OS

5. Periodical Software Updates

When it comes to software updates, Linux carries the day. It tends to do more software updates as compared to its rival Windows. As a computer science student, you would want to use an operating system that is always up to date with the current ecosystem.

Microsoft tends to be slow when it comes to releasing software updates. It will release an update only after receiving a particular set of problems. Otherwise, you will continue using the operating system in its current form.

The situation is totally different in with the Linux operating system. You will encounter several updates which are usually released on a regular basis.

6. Linux is also friendly on older computers

Operating systems evolve with time. As they do so, their hardware specifications also tend to evolve in order to match each other’s demand. For example, your PC needs to meet specific minimum requirements in order to run the Windows 10 hardware. Otherwise, the OS cannot run on any other low-end PC.

This is slightly different for Linux as it can run on old computer systems. However, this does not mean that any Linux distribution will be compatible with any system that has an outdated processor. The main advantage with Linux is you will have an option to install a distribution that is friendly to low-end devices.

7. Linux has plenty of distributions

In relation to the point above, Linux is a very flexible operating system. It has plenty of distributions that one can choose from. While Windows has different distributions for different uses, you won’t be free to move any time you want due to the issue of pricing and licensing issues.

Read: 10 Most Popular Linux Distributions of All Time

For Linux, you can choose any distribution that will fully meet your needs. Whether you want a distribution for hackers or for ordinary computing, you will be free to do so.

8. Linux has an awesome community support

Once you encounter a problem in the Linux OS, you won’t need to call an expert. Just post your issue in any Linux community forums and you will get the much-needed help. Being an open source OS is the reason behind a large and helpful community.

Are these reasons convincing enough? If you are still going to use Windows and your main OS, what are some of your reasons? Let’s us know in the comment section.

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Linux

Top 5 Best Linux Distros Programmers And Developers

best linux distros for programmers in 2019

Best Linux Distributions for Programming

Linux is a very popular operating system among programmers. There are numerous reasons why programmers and other tech-enthusiasts prefer using Linux-based operating systems rather than Windows or Mac. With the many Linux distros available, which ones are the best for programmers in 2019?

We cannot ignore the fact that some Linux distros are ideal for programmers while others are not. Some of the key issues that you should look at when choosing a Linux distro for programming include stability, compatibility, flexibility and even power.

Are you a programmer? Are you looking for the best Linux-based operating system to use? Here are the best Linux distros for programmers.

Linux Distros for Programmers In 2019

1. Debian Linux

Debian Linux for programmers

Many refer to it as the mother operating system of other Linux distros. Debian and Debian downstream are two major distros that dominate most talks about the best Linux distros for programmers. Of course, there are strong reasons for its popularity.

Debian comes with numerous packages, all of which are optimized for stability. To make things simpler, there are tutorials on how to use these packages. Using them won’t be a problem. This Linux distro also comes with a Debian testing branch which is highly stable.

Debian is an ideal distro for system programmers and advanced programmers. It may not be a perfect choice for someone who is just getting into programming.

2.Ubuntu

Basic ubuntu commands

Ubuntu is another popular Linux distro both inside and outside the programming arena. Its open source community is one of the reasons behind its popularity. This has allowed it to be continuously built and optimized to meet the latest needs of the developers.

Given that Ubuntu is derived from Debian, the distro is usually used for major applications such as cloud computing. Also, most servers run on Ubuntu.

Recommended: 20 Basic Ubuntu Commands Every Beginner Should Know

The good thing about Ubuntu is it comes with an array of packages to meet different needs of developers. Ubuntu enjoys a large user community and you can easily get any help whenever you get stuck. The distro has an independent Software Center which houses lots of applications that you can use to customizing the operating system to meet your specific programming needs.

3. Fedora

Fedora Linux 28

Fedora is an open source Linux distro that is powered by Red Hat Inc. We all know that Red Hat is known for sponsoring some of the best features in the Linux environment. In fact, most Linux distros struggle to release packages that can match the Red Hat standards.

Fedora automatically configures and updates itself. This makes it an ideal distro for system programming. New updates are usually released after every 6 months. It is also easy to upgrade from one version of Fedora to another.

Fedora is a perfect choice for someone who is deep into open source programming and love open source distros. Since it is stable, it is an ideal Linux distro for programming.

4. Raspbian

Raspbian_-_Raspberry_Pi_2_(16934273471)

Raspbian OS is another powerful Linux distro that programmers can use in 2019. The OS is specifically customized for beginners. It allows programmers to handle programming tasks with ease.

Raspbian OS comes with different tools for programming. They include Geany, Greenfoot, Mathematica, BlueJ Scratch, Node-RED, Python among others. All these tools will streamline your learning process.

Recommended: Top 5 Lightweight Linux Distributions for Low Spec PCs

5. Arch Linux

arch linux

Arch Linux is among the best Linux distros for programming that you can use in 2019. It is loved by most die-hard Linux enthusiasts. One of the reasons behind the massive popularity of this distro is it comes with a package manager and Linux kernel.

When using Arch Linux to program, you will have to follow a step by step process. You will need to choose the required components, build the operating system and then customize it. You don’t have to worry about anything as there is a large Arch community that will always be ready to give you the much-needed help.

The good thing about this Linux distro is you only need to install it once. From there, you will be only making monthly updates.

So, what’s your opinion on this list of best Linux distros for programmers and developers in 2019? Which one do you think can work effectively for you? Feel free to share in the comment section.

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Linux

Kali Linux 2019.1 Released With Metasploit 5.0 and Automation APIs

kali linux 2019 1

After keeping us waiting for so many years, the Offensive Security has finally released the Kali Linux 2019.1, a new version that brings tonnes of bug fixes and tools update.

Since its launch in 2013, Kali Linux has taken the penetration testers, Cybersecurity researchers, and hackers to another level. The best thing about this Linux distro is that it offers most of the required advanced tools pre-installed in the operating system.

Also Read: Top 10 Kali Linux Tools for Ethical Hackers

What’s New in Kali Linux 2019.1?

The new Kali Linux 2019.1 comes with many updates but I believe the launch of Metasploit 5.0 is a major one. If you are unaware, it’s one of the best pen testing tool available out there. It was launched in 2011 and since then it received the first update after almost 8 years.

Metasploit 5.0
Source: Metasploit.com

Its latest version includes a database, automation APIs, new evasion capabilities and usability improvements throughout. You can read more about it here.

The new Linux based OS now supports both Banana Pi and Banana Pro single board system, thanks to its upgraded Kernal (v4.19.13). Furthermore, choosing the images of Raspberry Pi has been simplified ever than before.

Coming to other updates, the developers have updated the DBeaver, theHarvester, Binwalk, Burp, Fern-WiFi-Cracker and some other important packages in Kali Linux 2019.1. The new Kali Linux version is more stable and ready for the upcoming challenges.

The latest version of Kali now comes with a new search engine, integrated web services, support for writing shell-code in C, new evasion modules and json-rpc daemon.

How to Download Kali Linux 2019.1?

The latest version is available for everyone and you can download it from here. You can also find ISOs, Torrents,  links, Offensive security virtual machine, ARM images links on the downloads page. These are also been updated to 2019.1. Finally, if you are already using Kali Linux, you can easily upgrade as follows:

[email protected]:~# apt update && apt -y full-upgrade

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Tech News

IBM to buy Red Hat Linux for $34 Billion! But why?

IBM to buy red hat

 

Here is the big news coming out of Tech Industry, IBM (International Business Machines), one of the oldest technology companies in operation is about to acquire the Linux Giant and open source enterprise Red Hat for $34 billion. If they intendants proceedings then acquisition will be completed till half of 2019. It is the largest software acquisition in history, till now the largest software buyout was Microsoft’s purchase of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in 2016.

IBM chief Ginni Rometty made a statement “The acquisition of Red Hat is a game-changer. It changes everything about the cloud market”. Buying Red Hat, IBM will start providing technology to its biggest competitors, including Amazon, Microsoft, and Google. Since, Red Hat partners with all of them, and IBM stated that it will continue to be the partners even after the acquisition and will work to expand on them.

IBM is expecting to emerge as the leading hybrid cloud provider in the world and will treat Red Hat as a completely different unit inside its Hybrid Cloud group. It also expects to use Red Hat’s open source roots for benefiting itself. If you are having doubt about the cloud, I will just make it clear to you, the cloud allude to software and services that run on the internet instead of your computer such as  Google Drive, Flickr, Netflix, Microsoft Office 365, Yahoo Mail, Dropbox, all these are cloud services.

The reason behind this acquisition

Spending billions to acquire an open source software company might seem strange. In the 90s when Linux was coming up as a firm third OS alternative for engineers, coders, sysadmins, and people got tired of Microsoft and Apple, IBM publicly announced its support to Linux. The reason was predicted well by IBM that Linux would be running on a great majority of the servers that would power the internet and corporations’ backends. So it created IBM Linux Technology Centre to allow development in Linux without costly patent lawsuits, though Red Hat might not be nearly as old as IBM, it’s still a publicly traded corporation in making money.

Open source was once the impractical movement in the software industry, but now it is the core part of how big companies like Google and Facebook to Walmart etc operates. Sharing code with competitors allows these companies to work together to solve common problems. Microsoft has released multiple open source projects and just closed a $7.5 billion acquisition of the code hosting and collaboration company GitHub.

Meanwhile, IBM has been trying to shift itself into a cloud computing company. The cloud management company RightScale conducted a survey earlier this year and put IBM as the fourth-most-widely-used cloud service, behind Amazon, Microsoft, and Google, and found the company’s growth statistics lower than them.

Though Red Hat is not a major host of cloud services but is a major player in the building of cloud services. While Red Hat is best known for its operating system, it offers a growing range of other products that make it easy for companies to build cloud-like platforms in their own data centres or manage applications that run on multiple different cloud computing services.

This settles IBM to acquire Red Hat for its business. IBM has made a remarkable change from being a hardware giant into a services-centric company and has a long partnership and relations with Red Hat. But the question is, will the cultures of these two companies settle well. As I mentioned above, IBM said Red Hat will operate as a standalone unit within its Hybrid Cloud organization, with its authority staying unblemished from IBM.

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LinuxTop Lists

5 Best Linux Distributions for Beginners (Windows and Mac Users)

Top 5 Best linux distributions for newbie

Top 5 Linux Distributions for Beginners

If you are one of those PC users who want to work on Linux but finds it very difficult to understand, you’re just fine. Linux has always been some kind of strange OS for normal PC users. Its user interface, functionalities, file system and compatibility of programs are different.

Mostly new users think of Linux as it is a very complex OS but it’s not like that. When you look at your Android phone, it is difficult to use? No? There are many Linux distributions specifically designed for servers and pro users. But, there are many distros for normal PC users as well. Whether you want to use it for a business or any other home operations, Linux is the most reliable system to adopt. In this article, we’ll look at the top 5 best Linux distributions for beginners.

Read: Top 10 Most Popular Linux Distros for Everyone

1. Ubuntu

UBUNTU os -best linux distributions for beginners

Ubuntu is the most popular Linux distro of all time. It offers a great user interface with very stable updates and patches from time to time. It is an open source software operating system that runs from the desktop, to the cloud, to all your internet connected things.

The real strength is in the community, Ubuntu has a huge community so that no new user feels like he is stuck with a problem. All most all the troubles you come across would have the answers on the community blog. Most Linux beginners start with either Ubuntu or Linux Mint as they are super easy to install and set-up.

2. Linux Mint

Linux Mint Cinnamon

Linux Mint is a very popular Debian and Ubuntu-based Linux distribution which offers great stability, speed and an elegant looking GUI to the users. It is one of the most popular desktop Linux distributions and used by millions of people. It’s both free of cost and open source. The community of Linux Mint is very active and you can find a solution to almost all the problems you might face during installation or run. It has about 30,000 packages and one of the best software managers.

There mainly tow desktop environment used with Linux Mint: Cinnamon Edition and MATE Edition

3. Elementary OS

elementary os -best linux distributions for beginners

Elementary OS is known as one of the most beautiful Linux distributions. It is the flagship distribution to showcase the Pantheon desktop environment. The interface is highly inspired by Apple’s Mac OS and is made on the Ubuntu Linux Ecosystem. If you are looking for a simple yet beautiful Linux distro, Elementary OS would be a great choice.

The elementary OS distribution initially started as a set of themes and applications designed for Ubuntu which later turned into its own Linux distribution. Being Ubuntu-based, it is compatible with its repositories and packages and uses Ubuntu’s own software center to handle the installation/removal of software. Its user interface aims at being intuitive for new users without consuming too many resources

4. Zorin OS

zorin os -best linux distributions for beginners

Zorin OS has the perfect blend of power and usability for everyone. It was built to be as easy as possible, so you won’t need to learn a thing to get started because of its Windows-like user interface. Zorin comes loaded with all the apps and tools you need out of the box for browsing the web, working, playing and everything in between. It has the power of Linux and it’s possible for anyone to use it.

5. Manjaro Linux

manjaroos -best linux distributions for beginners

Manjaro is best suitable for beginners as well as experienced. It is based on Arch Linux and a quite stable rolling distro. Manjaro is pre-loaded with awesome tools and packs. It has a very good selection of software out of the box that makes it a fantastic distro.

Manjaro has a very simple installation process and provides access to Arch based features such as AUR. It is a fluid, smooth, fast, clean, very organized distro.

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Top Lists

Top 10 Most Popular Linux Distributions of All Time

Top Linux Distributions

The world of Linux is expanding at an exponential rate. After dominating the server world, it’s time for Linux to rule over the PC market. Today we will look at the top 10 Linux distributions of all time.

Note: Like any top 10 articles on the internet, this is an opinion. The distributions are ranked on various parameters like Update time, Community support, Ease of use, security etc. It's ok if you do not find your favourite distribution in this list. If you think we missed a really good one, please take time and comment below to let us know.

Now that we are done with the notice, Let’s get right into the topic.

10. Zorin

Zorin is a Ubuntu-based Linux distribution made and maintained in Ireland. It takes a lot of inspiration from Windows when it comes to the User Interface. The main aim of this distro is to give the users a Windows-like experience for free.

zorin os -best linux distributions for beginners

9. Manjaro

Manjaro is a great choice for someone who wants to try Arch Linux but is not sure how to configure it. Since it has Arch under the hood, it offers a great number of features which easily stand out compared to other distros. Manjaro is gaining popularity in recent times. If you want to try something new, it is a great option to consider.

8. CentOS

CentOS is a big name in the server world and is less heard in the PC market, but it’s still there. CentOS is very stable and reliable which is the reason why it is quite often used in servers. The feature which stands out is the complete binary compatibility with Red Hat Enterprise Linux, which makes it a great alternative for the ever so popular RHEL.

7. Fedora

Made and maintained by the Fedora Project, Fedora is one of the most talked Linux distros of all time.

The greatest advantage of going with the Fedora is the super fast updates and the inclusion of the new packages. It’s easy to install and is similar to RHEL.

6. Arch Linux

Arch is a great Linux distro which does not depend on any other Linux Ecosystem. It is my favorite distro in this list.

Arch is typically now suggested for any new Linux users as it is a little hard to configure and use it. You have complete control on how your desktop should look. As a matter of fact, you have to install a GUI as it doesn’t come with any. It doesn’t come with much pre-installed software, so you can pretty much make your own OS which best suits for your work. If I have to go back from my current distro, I’ll choose Arch anytime.

archlinux-screen1

5. openSUSE

openSUSE is one of the most popular alternatives for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux. openSUSE is a bit different from other Linux Ecosystems and I mean in a good way. You can install almost any  Linux desktop environments on the same openSUSE installation without actually compromising the stability of the system.

suse-linux-and-opensuse-leap-to-offer-better-support-for-arm-systems-using-efi-507570-2

4. Elementary OS

Often called as one of the most beautiful Linux distributions, ElementaryOS is all about those looks. The interface is highly inspired by Apple’s MacOS and is made on the Ubuntu Linux Ecosystem. If you are looking for a simple yet beautiful Linux distro, ElementaryOS would be a great choice.

3. Debian

Debian is one of the oldest Linux distros out there. It offers great security, stability and the largest number of packages for you to choose from. With the recent release of the Debian 9, it is one of the best distros out there.

2. Linux Mint

Linux Mint is a very popular Ubuntu-based Linux distribution which offers great stability, speed and an elegant looking GUI to the users. The community of Linux Mint is very active and you can find a solution to almost all the problems you might face during installation or run.

Up until the version 17.X, they used to include all the useful software in the box, but now with 18.X the users have to manually install all the necessary software they want like a multimedia player etc.

1. Ubuntu

If you are a new Linux user or a professional, you would have definitely heard the name Ubuntu somewhere. It is safe to say that it is the most popular Linux distro of all time. It offers a great user interface with very stable updates and patches from time to time. The real strength is in the community, Ubuntu has a huge community so that no new user feels like he is stuck with a problem. All most all the troubles you come across would have the answers in the community blog. Most Linux beginners start with either Ubuntu or Linux Mint as they are super easy to install and set-up.

Desktop_Ubuntu_13_10

Have something to say? Please comment below to let us know.

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